Quantum computers use quantum bits, which is in contrast to conventional, binary computers. This quantum effect is called superposition and increases the possible computing power exponentially because qubits perform the required computing steps in parallel and not in succession. The technology is said to be able to calculate highly complex tasks for simulations, machine learning or encryption very quickly. This also includes so-called difficult and complex mathematical problems on which common encryption methods are based.
There Is A Constant Race Between Encryptors And Code Breakers
Just because the computers are becoming more and more powerful, it is now possible to brutally crack many weaker codes from the past by trying out all the keys available today. The cryptographic procedures that make the network secure are routinely strengthened in the background, for example by using longer key codes. However, this gradual improvement will no longer be of any use if powerful quantum computers are ready for use.
All Common Procedures Are At Risk
The statement – quantum computers can crack all encryption methods is shortened. All current methods are susceptible. They are based on two different asymmetrical arithmetic operations, which are easy to carry out in one direction but very difficult in the other. One is the decomposition of large numbers into their prime factors. The opposite – the generation of a number if the prime factors are known is a simple multiplication. The second operation used for encryption is the calculation of the so-called discrete logarithm of an integer.
Both are suitable for public key encryption because you can only read the encoded messages if you can break down the publicly visible – number. Only those communication partners who have the private key can do this.